Typologies

Translanguaging Texts

Texts written primarily in English, with some LOTE.

More Translanguaging Texts books (30)

Bilingual Texts

Books where the entire text is provided in both English and LOTE, typically on different parts of the page or on separate pages.

More Bilingual Texts books (14)

Character Driven Concurrent Translation

This category refers to texts written primarily in English in which characters are explicitly teaching each other LOTE or English words or phrases. The characters or narrator will at times directly translate the word or phrase that is being taught, though sometimes the definition is implied through context.

Comprehensive Text and Illustration Integration

This category refers to texts written primarily in English that fluidly integrate LOTE words and phrases in the text, illustrations, and dialogue, using a variety of translanguaging strategies. The authors may or may not provide translations of the LOTE words and phrases.

More Comprehensive Text and Illustration Integration books (7)

Concurrent Translation

This category refers to texts written primarily in English that provide immediate, in-text English translations of their LOTE words or phrases.

More Concurrent Translation books (7)

Illustrations Only

This category refers to texts written primarily in English where the only use of LOTE occurs within the illustrations. The LOTE words and phrases may or may not be concurrently translated.

No Concurrent Translation

This category refers to texts written primarily in English that do not provide English translations of their LOTE words or phrases. Instead, the definition is implied through the context of the story.

More No Concurrent Translation books (12)

With LOTE Used Within English Text

This category refers to bilingual books that integrate LOTE words or phrases in the English text. These LOTE words or phrases may or may not be directly translated within the English text. Typically, there are not English words or phrases used in the LOTE text.

More With LOTE Used Within English Text books (7)

With LOTE Used in Illustrations

This category refers to bilingual books that use LOTE words or phrases within the illustrations. These LOTE words or phrases are not usually translated to English.

Without Translanguaging

This category refers to bilingual texts that do not use LOTE in the English text or English in the LOTE text. While they could be well-suited for use in a classroom using a translanguaging pedagogy, the authors themselves do not translanguage.

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