Translanguaging Typology

There are a variety of ways authors and illustrators use translanguaging when they write and create their visuals. We created a typology that outlines some of these differences. By more closely analyzing the specific ways translanguaging can happen in books, we hope teachers can create a more detailed plan for how to discuss with students the linguistic choices authors make and the ways students can shape and craft their own multilingual writing.

Glossary

  • Translanguaging Tags

  • Translanguaging Texts
  • No Concurrent Translation
  • Comprehensive Text and Illustration Integration
  • Illustrations Only
  • Concurrent Translation
  • Character Driven Concurrent Translation

    Translanguaging Texts

    Translanguaging Texts

    Texts written primarily in English, with some LOTE.

    No Concurrent Translation

    This category refers to texts written primarily in English that do not provide English translations of their LOTE words or phrases. Instead, the definition is implied through the context of the story.

    Comprehensive Text and Illustration Integration

    This category refers to texts written primarily in English that fluidly integrate LOTE words and phrases in the text, illustrations, and dialogue, using a variety of translanguaging strategies. The authors may or may not provide translations of the LOTE words and phrases.

    Illustrations Only

    This category refers to texts written primarily in English where the only use of LOTE occurs within the illustrations. The LOTE words and phrases may or may not be concurrently translated.

    Concurrent Translation

    This category refers to texts written primarily in English that provide immediate, in-text English translations of their LOTE words or phrases.

    Character Driven Concurrent Translation

    This category refers to texts written primarily in English in which characters are explicitly teaching each other LOTE or English words or phrases. The characters or narrator will at times directly translate the word or phrase that is being taught, though sometimes the definition is implied through context.

    Bilingual Texts

    Bilingual Texts

    Books where the entire text is provided in both English and LOTE, typically on different parts of the page or on separate pages.

    With LOTE Used in Illustrations

    This category refers to bilingual books that use LOTE words or phrases within the illustrations. These LOTE words or phrases are not usually translated to English.

    With LOTE Used Within English Text

    This category refers to bilingual books that integrate LOTE words or phrases in the English text. These LOTE words or phrases may or may not be directly translated within the English text. Typically, there are not English words or phrases used in the LOTE text.

    Without Translanguaging

    This category refers to bilingual texts that do not use LOTE in the English text or English in the LOTE text. While they could be well-suited for use in a classroom using a translanguaging pedagogy, the authors themselves do not translanguage.

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